Manufacturing refers to the fabrication, processing, preparation and production of goods in which raw materials are transformed into finished products. This includes machines, equipment like household appliances, office supplies and furniture, chemicals, textiles and foods.
Manufacturing is a major source of employment around the world thus multiple cases of human trafficking and forced labour can be found in this industry. Workers may face hazardous working conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures and hazardous chemicals, low wages and use of dangerous machinery. In the electronics and electrical goods manufacturing industry both internal and international migrants, make up a significant proportion of the workforce in many countries. Recruitment agents and labor contractors are heavily involved in the supply of labor to this sector which increases workers’ risk of being trafficked. Workers are often misled by recruiters about the jobs they will be placed in, including the nature of the work and the wages they will be paid, but also sometimes about the company they will be working for, or the region they will be working in. Debt bondage is also frequently correlated with recruitment in this sector, a consequence of workers borrowing to pay fees to recruiters to place them in their jobs, which given the low wages, the workers have difficulty paying off.

Supplier Responsibility
Good PracticesPublications
01 January 2019

This 2019 Annual Progress Report outlines Apple’s efforts in 2018.

The 2018 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
20 September 2018

Purpose of this Report The U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL) has produced this eighth edition of the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor in accordance with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPRA), as amended. The TVPRA...

Vietnam Private Sector Assessment – A Preliminary Scoping Study
02 June 2018

The primary objective of the study is to provide a broadbased overview of the private sector in Vietnam as a stakeholder in combating modern slavery in the country. The following secondary objectives specify the details of the data that need...

UK Modern Slavery Helpline: Annual Assessment 2017
16 April 2018

The UK-wide Modern Slavery Helpline and Resource Centre was established in October 2016 to provide victims, the public, statutory agencies and businesses with access to information and support on a 24/7 basis. Operated by Unseen, in its first full year...

Eradicating Forced Labour in Electronics
09 March 2018

The information and communications technology sector(ICT) is at high risk of forced labour. A significant number ofworkers in electronics supply chains are migrant workers who are particularly vulnerable to exploitation. The US Department of Labour lists China and Malaysia as countries where...

Agents for change. How public procurers can influence labour conditions in global supply chains. Case studies from Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand
15 November 2016

The report focuses on the social aspects of supply chains and examines how contracting authorities in the EU can use social criteria to improve labour conditions in countries where poor labour standards are rife. The report draws on experiences and...

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