Agriculture, Horticulture & Landscaping

There are a number of potential touch points where human trafficking can occur in the agriculture and horticulture industry. First of all agricultural work is usually seasonal. Seasonal workers often lack workplace protections, including unemployment compensation and health insurance, as well as job security and stability. Farms and plantations usually cover vast areas and are not well-serviced by public transportation. Employees also usually live on the site which is why the workers can be exposed to labour exploitation even easier.

Unfinished Work In The Fight Against Forced Labor In Uzbekistan’s 2019 Cotton Harvest
Publications
23 June 2020

Uzbek Forum has conducted independent, community-based monitoring and reporting on the cotton harvest since 2009. In previous reports, Uzbek Forum endeavored to expose forced labor, identify its root causes, and show the scale, impact on institutions, and effects on people...

No Worker Left Behind: Protecting Vulnerable Workers from Exploitation During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic
Publications
01 April 2020

This briefing builds on the understanding that labour exploitation is part of a spectrum ranging from labour compliance through to labour law violations, culminating at extreme exploitation in the form of forced labour. Research by FLEX and others shows that...

Impact of Covid-19 on Women Workers in the Horticulture Sector in Kenya
Publications
01 April 2020

Hivos commissioned an assessment in April 2020 to establish the impact of Covid-19 on women workers in the horticulture sector. This was assessed with special focus on their current employment status, living conditions, shifts in their household expenses and their...

Murky Waters – A qualitative Assessment of Modern Slavery in the Pacific Region
Publications
09 March 2020

While previous qualitative research has exposed select forms of modern slavery in the Pacific, this report provides a comprehensive assessment of modern slavery in the region. The report draws on existing peer-reviewed and grey literature, Walk Free’s 2019 assessment of...

Third-party monitoring of child labour and forced labour during the 2019 cotton harvest in Uzbekistan
Publications
05 February 2020

This report has been prepared by the International Labour Office pursuant to an agreement between the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Bank to carry out third-party monitoring on the incidence of child labour and forced labour in the...

Recognising Lived Realities
Publications
01 December 2019

This briefing presents the findings of a project, led by University of Liverpool in partnership with FLEX and funded by the British Academy with the Department for International Development. The project assessed how transparency in supply chains for chocolate and...

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